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Marijuana and hermaphroditism

Marijuana and hermaphroditism

What is a hermaphrodite marijuana plant?

Hermaphrodite marijuana plant

Hermaphrodite marijuana plants develop both male and female flowers. While it is a natural feature of the cannabis plant, it is an undesired trait when growing marijuana for consumption, since there is a great chance to obtain a plant full of seeds, what seriously reduces the quantity and quality of the final product.

hermaphrodite marijuana plant
hermaphrodite marijuana plant

Hermaphroditism can have 2 origins: genetic and environmental.

Genetically, some marijuana strains are more sensitive to hermaphroditism than others. This can be explained by the genetic origins of the strain – Thai sativas, for example, usually reach a high percentage of hermaphrodite plants – or also by the technique used when producing seeds (GA3,…).

Regardless its genetic sensitivity, a marijuana plant can also become hermaphrodite by the influence of stress. When it feels that the flowering conditions are too hard, hermaphroditism is an effective and natural way to shorten this period, pollinating its female flowers with the pollen of a few male clusters (usually called “bananas”).

Stress, that highly increases the risk of hermaphroditism, may have several causes, such as:

  • Changes in the photoperiod, specially interruptions of the dark period during flowering
  • Too much heat (>27°C aproximately), wrong environmental conditions
  • Harvesting too late, when the grower misses the deadline for harvesting his/her plants
  • Mechanical stress: broken branches, damaged roots, pruning during flowering,…
  • Irrigation issues (lack or excess)
  • Over-fertilisation
  • Insects, mites, diseases…
  • Thermal stress (irrigating plants with cold water…)
  • Use of phytotoxic products (pesticides, fungicides…)

How to avoid hermaphrodite plants?

Hermaphrodite marijuana bud

Hermaphrodite marijuana bud

To avoid hermaphrodite marijuana plants, the main rule is avoiding any kind of stress during their flowering period, so we limit the risks as far as possible. Pruning and staking of the plants should be performed during their growth and/or pre-flowering stage (stretch), before the buds start developing.

In order to lower the chances to get hermaphrodite plants, you should: mantain good environmental conditions in your growing space, a perfect hygiene, regularly monitor your timers , check your plants for insects and mites, water them regularly with a balanced nutrient solution. At the end of flowering, carefully check the trichomes so you don’t miss the harvest deadline.

When you have to decide which marijuana strains to grow on your next crops, carefully read any comments from other growers on the chosen strains, as well as seedbank advices and recommendations on them, so you have all the information about these seeds and can better avoid those strains with hermaphrodite traits in their genepool. Actually, if there are too many comments about the hermaphroditism of a specific strain, the breeder him/herself often withdraws it from the market.

Regular cannabis seeds are known for being less sensitive to hermaphroditism than feminized seeds, although this is not an axiom, we must carefully chech our plants for male flowers whatever the type of seed we are growing.

What to do when we find hermaphrodite marijuana plants?

What to do when we find hermaphrodite marijuana plants?
What to do when we find hermaphrodite marijuana plants?

Cannabis hermaphroditism

As we mentioned before, it is very important to carefully check our plants for male flowers from the beginning of flowering. During the flowering period, these male flowers are easily observed due to their yellow colour and banana shape. We will also check for mites or insects, as well as molds, so we avoid the most common cannabis pests .

If a plant shows male and female flowers from the beginning of flowering, unfortunately we will have to eliminate it immediately from the growing space. Otherwise, it could pollinate the entire crop, transmitting the hermaphrodite trait to the offspring.

When the plant becomes hermaphrodite at full flowering, we have 2 options:

  • If the plant only produces few male flowers, we can remove them with a pair of tweezers (sterilized with alcohol), spraying water on them – water sterilizes pollen – and then watching for new bananas.
  • If the plant produces numerous male flowers, we should eliminate it from the growing space.

Finally, if a marijuana plant becomes hermaphrodite at the end of flowering, we should harvest it as soon as possible, before the male flowers release their pollen.

Cannabis hermaphroditism

Did you find seeds in your cannabis harvest?

Marijuana seeds developing

Marijuana seeds developing

If you find seeds in your harvested buds and there is not any male plant near your growing spot, it is because there was at least one hermaphrodite plant in your crop.  Those male flowers that were not removed released their pollen next to the female plants. Unfortunately, once pollinated the plant focuses its energy on producing seeds, instead of producing new flowers.

As we already mentioned, these seeds coming from hermaphrodite pollen will mantain this undesirable trait, so it is recommended not to grow them.

We hope that these tips will help you to efficiently detect hermaphrodite plants, so you can get the most out of your sinsemilla marijuana crop!!

cannabis seeds

How to make feminised cannabis seeds

How to make feminised cannabis seeds
How to make feminised cannabis seeds

Until the 1990s, any cannabis cultivator was aware that, at some point, they had to separate the male and female plants if they didn’t want the first ones to pollinate the latter, which results in plants completely full of seeds. However, those were the days when pioneering seed banks like Dutch Passion were revolutionizing the cannabis scene with the birth of the first feminized cannabis strains, or in other words, seeds that only develop into female plants. At the beginning of the 20th century, many seeds banks were offering this type of seeds, feminized versions of classics strains that had been cultivated during many years as regular plants.

We are sure that by now you’d probably have grown some feminized seeds, maybe even though you are a purist and the fiercest defender of regular seeds. But… do you know where feminized seeds come from? Are you familiar with the processes used by both breeders and growers to obtain them? In this article we explain everything!

Advantages of growing feminised seeds

Indeed, the advent of feminized seeds brought about a genuine revolution within the cannabis sector. Growers were now sure that all their plants would be females, without the need to differentiate between male and female plants or having to remove the males before they could ruin the crops, which offers a number of benefits of significant importance:

  • Space and resources saving: no more growing plants which eventually will be removed for being males.
  • Reliability: it’s not that most plants are female, or that they are genetically more likely to produce female plants. The plants grown from feminized seeds have only female chromosomes (XX), therefore this method is 99% reliable.
  • Sinsemilla plants: by not having males in the grow room, your female plants won’t be pollinated, so they won’t produce any seeds during the flowering period (something that every cultivator wants, unless they want to obtain seeds)

These advantages were of great interest for the growers, and soon feminised seeds accounted for a large portion of the seeds available in the market. In addition, being able to use only female plants (generally known and selected clones) to produce seeds had another great advantage for seed producers and breeders of new varieties: they no longer need to keep males in their gene pools! And not only that… from that moment on, any female plant they could get their hands on could be used as a male to pollinate other plants, thus exponentially increasing the possibilities of creating new crosses.

It is not surprising, therefore, that at present, feminized seeds represent virtually all the seeds in the market, since they offer a number of significant advantages for both professional and home growers and breeders, for photoperiod and autoflowering plants. The main disadvantage of this method is a well known and hotly debated issue: the growers who buy this type of seeds cannot produce their own seeds in the absence of male plants, so the only way they can manage it it’s using the same process to obtain this type of seeds. But… what are these processes and what are they based on?

Female crosses: feminised cannabis seeds are born

As we’ve already mentioned, feminized seeds are the result of a process that reverses the sex of a female plant, that is, she is forced to produce male flowers. This way, and once into flowering, the female chosen will start to develop what we know as male flowers(stamens and anthers), which, just like male plants, will release the pollen that will pollinate the female plants. What is then the difference between a male plant and a reverted female plant?

The sex of cannabis plants is determined in the same way as ours, through the so-called sex chromosomes or genosomes. Male plants have a couple of different sex chromosomes called “XY” or heterogametic, while female plants have two chromosomes called “XX” or homogametic. When crossing a male (XY) with a female (XX), we will obtain around half of the plants of each type in their offspring. In other words, when a breeder uses a male and a female plant, the seeds produced by them will be approximately 50% males and 50% females.

After this explanation, many of you will have already figured out that if we cross two female plants (reversing the sex of one of them to force it to produce pollen), the result will be seeds that will produce female plants, as there are only female sex chromosomes in the equation. If crossing XY with XX produced 50% of each class (male and female), crossing XX with XX will produce plants that only exhibit chromosomes XX, that is to say, female plants. No matter how many times we “transform” a female plant into a male plant, we won´t be changing their genetic composition, which will still be female or XX. This way, the pollen produced by this plant will pass down female sex chromosomes exclusively.

Methods used to produce feminized cannabis seeds

There are several ways to secure that a female plant produces pollen, and almost all of them require some type of chemical that is often sprayed on the plant. Once sprinkled with the chosen product and under a flowering photoperiod, the plant will flower normally, but as a male instead of female, producing ‘feminized’ pollen (which only contains chromosomes XX) that can be used to pollinate other females in order to produce seeds. These are some of the most commonly used techniques:

Stress or rodelization

One of the first methods used to obtain seeds that produce female plants was stress or rodelization. There are several ways to stress the cannabis plants to make sure they develop male flowers, such as through temperature, nutrition, photoperiod, and pH. However, supporters of this technique often prefer something as simple as delaying the harvest 2-3 weeks in order to force the plants to develop a few male flowers without stressing them as much as with any of the other methods we have mentioned.

Although this action will produce far less pollen than other techniques like STS, it will be enough to obtain a handful of seeds for the domestic growers to try to create their own feminized crosses. Also, the great advantage of this technique is that is 100% natural, and it doesn´t use any chemicals. It is an excellent alternative for anyone who just wants a few seeds and wishes to keep it simple without any formulas or laboratory products. However, bear in mind that this is the only method listed in this post that may produce some plants with hermaphroditic traits.

Male flower produced by rodelization
Male flower produced by rodelization

STS or silver thiosulfate solution

Without any doubt, one of the most commonly used methods for both producers and seed banks. This is a solution made of distilled water, silver nitrate and sodium thiosulphate (sometimes called sodium hyposulphite) that, after being sprayed on the female plants, inhibits their ethylene action resulting in the formation of male flowers once flowering has been induced. STS is relatively easy to prepare, although its lifespan after combining the two components is quite limited, barely a few days as long as it´s well preserved (in a dark and cool place).

It is important to mention that you must not consume any part of the plants sprayed with this type of product, although that would be weird, as the plants have “become” males and won´t produce any buds. Nevertheless, you shouldn’t use the reverted plants to make resin extracts; the best thing is to discard them after harvesting the pollen. Both components, sodium thiosulphate and silver nitrate, are also used for photo-development.

Colloidal silver

This is another way to revert the sex of the plants, but this time using a solution made of 30ppm colloidal silver (that you can easily find in many pharmacies and also online) and distilled water. The solution must be applied for a few days until the plant starts producing male flowers, something that it´s not necessary with STS, where in most cases one single application is enough.

Colloidal silver is formed by electrically charged silver nanoparticles and has antibacterial and antifungal properties. This product was introduced in the market in 1980 for therapeutic use. However, as with STS, you should get rid of the sprayed plants once their pollen is harvested, as colloidal silver is absorbed systemically by the plant and remains in its tissues.

Urban legends and lies about feminized seeds

Despite the fact that, after two decades of cannabis cultivation, many of the false myths surrounding feminized seeds have been debunked, from time to time we still hear some arguments like the ones shown below. As is often the case, many of these stories are spread by people who have never grown this type of seeds or have none or very limited experience with them. Ignorance is always a bad thing, and that’s why we want to emphasize several points in relation to feminized seeds and the myths that often go with them; myths such as the following:

Feminized seeds produce hermaphrodite plants:

The problem with monoecious hermaphrodite plants has more to do with the parents used (and if they exhibit any hermaphrodite trait) rather than with the type of seeds produced. If to create a feminized seed you use a female plant with a tendency to produce male flowers, part of its offspring will likely inherit that characteristic, whether the said female plant is used as a pollen donor (after reversing its sex) or as a recipient of pollen (letting it flowering as usual).  Yet the same thing happens when producing regular seeds: if the male or female parents are not stable in this respect, neither will be their offspring (or at least part of it).